Gli articoli più visti nel mese di Luglio 2018
|Lettere - Giugno 2018|
|La terapia reidratante endovenosa in Pronto Soccorso: alla ricerca di una semplificazione|
Dislessia e ruolo del pediatra
Comunicato stampa - Eccellenze dell’Informazione Scientifica: la rivista “Medico e Bambino” premiata per la seconda volta
|Articolo speciale - Giugno 2018|
|Tempo materno, tempo di nido e sviluppo del bambino: le evidenze
I bambini hanno bisogno che sia dedicato loro tempo di qualità, sia in famiglia che al nido.
A review is made of the evidence about the effects of maternal time and childcare time on cognitive and non-cognitive child development. Both maternal time and, more broadly, caregiver’s time and attendance at childcare services are associated with improved cognitive and non-cognitive developmental outcomes. However, this is true only for structured, interactive maternal time and for high quality childcare services. Similarly to inadequate parenting, low quality childcare may even be detrimental for child development, particularly on its behavioural dimensions. Contrary to popularly held notions, working mothers usually dedicate as much developmental focused time to their children as non-working mothers. Mothers’ social and educational background is a strong determinant of early child development independently of childcare attendance. However, quality childcare can reduce the gap between children belonging to families of low socio-economical status (SES) and children belonging to middle to high SES groups. Overall, the findings of research studies are consistently indicating that there is no conflict between maternal time and childcare time since child development can benefit from both, provided that both are high quality. Child health professionals should promote development-focused parental practices as well as early attendance at childcare services. Public policies should increase access to and quality of early child education and provide opportunities to parents and caregivers to improve their parenting skills.
|Editoriali - Giugno 2018|
|Terapia dell’autismo: tra certezze, difficoltà e... bufale|
Trovare scorciatoie non serve, anzi è dannoso. Le linee guida esistono, e la loro applicazione nella pratica è una sfida che vede impegnati diversi protagonisti.
|Nurturing care for early child development|
Le “cure che nutrono la mente” nei primissimi anni di vita. Le ricette ci sono, riguardano i Servizi ma anche gli operatori socio- sanitari (vedi anche Articolo speciale).
|Aggiornamento monografico - Febbraio 2001|
|Le microcitosi nel bambino: classificazione e approccio diagnostico|
The Authors provide an overview of microcytic anemias. Causes of microcytic anemia include a wide variety of diseases, the most common being iron-deficiency, impaired haemoglobin synthesis, sideroblastic anemias and anemias due to chronic disease. Other less common causes are copper deficiency, lead poisoning and haemosiderosis. A classification of the main microcytic anemias is provided and a diagnostic approach to microcytosis, with and without anemia, based on RDW and MCV is suggested.
|Specialità - Novembre 1997|
|Il prurito atopico|
Atopic dermatitis is the most frequent skin disease characterized by severe itching. The treatment of atopic itching should start from the evaluation of its severity. An itching score based on the number of crises during daytime, the period of waking up during the night and the extension of scratch marks is suggested. The parents must be trained to prevent the crises of itching and to stop them as soon as possible. Finally, the indications and effectiveness of symptomatic treatments of pruritus such as emollients, corticosteroid creams and oral antihistamines are reviewed.
|Problemi correnti - Dicembre 2000|
|La tosse (o le tossi)|
Cough is a frequent symptom, ranging from the simple, irritatingly cough associated with the common cold to the catarrhal cough of sinusitis and to the prolonged afebrile non productive cough caused by intracellular pathogens such as Mycoplasma and Chlamydia. Cases of particularly troublesome, recurrent, “untreatable”, nonspecific cough are also commonly seen by paediatricians. Such cases have increasingly been diagnosed as having asthma (cough-variant asthma), but epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that cough is unlikely to be the only manifestation of asthma. This kind of cough is likely to be related to an increase of cough receptor sensitivity (CRH). The pathways of the reflex for cough and bronchoconstriction are distinctly different. Children with cough receptor hypersensitivity usually start coughing at bedtime and cough is typically unresponsive to treatment, and getting worse with time: in these children an increase of receptor sensitivity is probably due to cough itself. Chronic cough (lasting months and particularly if productive productive) should never be overlooked and requires a thorough diagnostic evaluation including sweat test and high resolution CT scan. Psychogenic cough is typical of school age children, it is stereotyped and stops, as a rule, as the child gets asleep.
|Per una pediatria basata sull'evidenza - Giugno 2000|
|Varicella e aciclovir|
Chicken pox is still a common disease, usually with a favourable course. Complications are rare (2-3/100.000) in immunocompetent patients. The Authors review the published experience regarding treatment with acyclovir and conclude that the advantage is marginall (25% reduction of the duration of symptoms), while there is no reduction in the rate of complications. Acyclovir should be used in immunocompromised patients including primary immune deficiencies, patients treated with steroids or long-term salycilates, patients affected by chronic lung diseases, eczema, diabetes and heart diseases.
|Problemi correnti - Gennaio 1999|
|La valutazione dello sviluppo psicomotorio nel primo anno di vita|
A neurodevelopmental assessment is proposed, based largely on Milani Comparetti’s concepts, and enriched by certain neonatal neurobehavioral items of Brazelton and Als and the Prechtl’s general movements (GMs) assessment in the first four months of life. It privileges the observation of spontaneous motor and interactive behavioral activity at four different phases during the first year of life, according to the stages of the separation-individuation process. Three main parameters are assessed: a) autonomic stability, focused on the first trimester; b) motor activity, divided into the non-functional spontaneous movement repertoire and adaptive functional motor activity; c) behavioral modulation, interpersonal and with the environment and objects. It is a simple, non intrusive method intended to be included in routine pediatric assessment. The overall main goal is to enable the pediatrician, through the assessment of normality, to reveal any deficit needing referral for specialistic investigation.
|Speciale - Gennaio 2018|
|PEDIATRIA DEI NOSTRI TEMPI. |
OVVERO: “PIÙ MATTI CHE MALATI”
Intendiamoci sulle parole:
le schede per la diagnosi dal DSM-V
Un numero dedicato al bambino-adolescente disfunzionale (con disturbi da sintomi somatici, da patologia da conversione, con sintomi inventati ecc.). Si tratta di un problema noto, emergente e grave che va visto sfuggendo dalla logica di limitarsi a escludere una patologia organica. Si parte dai criteri per la diagnosi, dalla descrizione dei casi, per arrivare a una presa in carico che sia in grado di fare, in modo professionalizzato, di più e meglio.
|Problemi non correnti - Settembre 1997|
|APEC: esantema periflessurale asimmetrico|
The paper describes a new entity, the Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem of Childhood (APEC), first described in 1962 and recently recognized as a separate clinical entity by many Authors. It is characterized by scarlatiniform or papular rash which develops usually from a periflexural (axillary or inguinal) area to the thoracic area but with a clear monolateral preference. Respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms may accompany the eruption. Occasionally moderate pruritus and regional lymphoadenopathy are present. The course is self-limited. This entity is believed to be caused by a virus but no single agent has been identified as a causal agent sofar. The Authors observed 4 cases of APEC over a period of four months in 18 to 24-month old children. It is probable that APEC can be diagnosed more often if increased attention is payed by paediatricians.
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