Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare
acute inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous
system. It affects children and young adults and is characterized by
a wide range of multifocal neurological signs. It is usually a monophasic
disease, but occasionally it can be multiphasic so that the
differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) must be considered.
We report the case of a 2-year-old child with sudden onset of neurological
symptoms after a pharyngitis. The diagnosis of ADEM
was made by magnetic resonance imaging that showed multiple
high signal areas in the brain and in the spinal marrow. She was
treated with high dose methylprednisolone for five days with a rapid
improvement of neurological signs.