Toscana virus is an endemic ArBo virus present in the countries of the Mediterranean basin. It may cause from asymptomatic or self-limiting febrile forms to cases of meningitis or meningoencephalitis that sometimes are complicated. Particularly in summertime in the Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna Regions (Italy) it is one of the main causes of aseptic meningitis in adults and children. The paper describes a typical case of Toscana virus meningitis in a 13-year-old girl to emphasise the importance of considering this virus, which is native to many Italian Regions, in a differential diagnosis with other pathogens that cause meningitis or meningoencephalitis during the summer season.
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