1Endocrinologia Clinica e Sperimentale, Istituto “Giannina Gaslini”, Genova
2Endocrinologia Clinica e Sperimentale, Istituto “Giannina Gaslini, Università di Genova
Indirizzo per corrispondenza: MohamadMaghnie@ospedale-gaslini.ge.it
Key words: Iodine deficiency, Thyroid disorders, Cognitive disorders
Iodine is a trace element essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The main source of supply is represented by food, but the content of iodine in food is variable being milk, dairy, bread, eggs, fish and crustaceans the main source of iodine. The daily requirement of iodine differs according to age, and the diet is not always able to meet the daily requirement. Thus, it is important to integrate the diet with iodized salt, salt supplemented with 30 mg/kg of iodine or with iodine supplements. Pregnancy and developmental age are period of life at risk for an inadequate intake of iodine and severe iodine deficiency or condition of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to unrecognized congenital hypothyroidism with neurological consequences in the newborn. The impact of mild to moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy is less known, but recent international papers demonstrate the relationship between mild iodine deficiency and cognitive delay in childhood and adolescence. In order to prevent the neurological consequencess of mild-moderate iodine deficiency, the Italian Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED) promotes the “Project for Prevention of iodine deficiency in Pediatrics” with the main objective of sensitizing the general population and physicians about the importance of an adequate daily intake of iodine.
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