SC Ortopedia, Traumatologia Pediatrica e Centro per il trattamento della scoliosi, IRCCS Materno-Infantile “Burlo Garofolo”, Trieste
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Key words: Osteochondrosis, Osgood-Schlatter and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson diseases, Sever disease, Köhler bone disease, Diagnosis, Treatment
Osteochondrosis is a term used to describe a group of disorders that affect the growing skeleton. The exact etiology of these disorders is unknown, but genetic causes, repetitive trauma, vascular abnormalities, and mechanical factors may all play a role. Osgood- Schlatter and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson diseases are common causes of anterior knee pain that is aggravated by jumping activities and kneeling. They are a self-limited process that responds to activity modification. Sever disease or calcaneal apophysitis causes heel pain that is exacerbated by activity and wearing cleats. It often mimics Achilles tendinitis. Nonoperative treatment includes activity and shoe modifications, padded heel cups, and calf stretches. Köhler bone disease is an osteochondrosis of the navicular bone in the foot. Patients are often aged between three and eight years, and boys are three to five times more likely to be affected. Recent reviews have shown that a short leg cast for up to four-eight weeks accelerates resolution of symptoms, although long-term outcomes are favourable regardless of treatment.
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