1UO Pediatria II, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Ospedale “S. Chiara”, Pisa
2Pediatra di famiglia, Capannori (Lucca)
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Key words: Prevention, Recommended daily intake, Rickets, Vitamin D supplements
The last guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics for prevention of vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents recommend a minimum daily intake of 400 IU of vitamin D beginning soon after birth. All breastfed and partially breastfed infants, as well as all nonbreastfed infants ingesting <1 liter per day of vitamin D fortified formula or milk should receive a vitamin D supplement of 400 IU per day. The intake of 400 IU of vitamin D per day has showed to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) levels ≥20 ng/ml in exclusively breastfed infants. It should be the “desiderable” value of 25-OH-D in infants, children, and adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency has been also associated with increased risks of some cancers, some cardiovascular diseases, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes mellitus, senile osteoporosis, and other pathologies. Thus, vitamin D supplementation should not only be restricted to prevention of rickets. Many preparations for prevention of vitamin D deficiency are available in Italy. The vitamin D-only preparations are particularly appropriate to provide vitamin D supplements. Moreover, the amount of vitamin D supplements (400 IU/day) should be easily computable and restricted in a relatively small volume. Vitamin D metabolites are not indicated for prevention of vitamin D deficiency.
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