In the last decades worldwide, the length of hospital stay for newborns and their mothers after childbirth has dramatically shortened mainly due to economical reasons. This choice may imply some risks for the newborn. The present article highlights the importance of a careful paediatric assessment in determining the adequate time of each newborn’s discharge. Health workers should use a checklist to cover possible problems the newborn may encounter and should discuss some of them with parents at the time of hospital discharge. Guidelines suggested by the AAP are discussed and integrated with the recent literature.