Giugno 2002 - Volume XXI - numero 6

Medico e Bambino


Focus

VACCINARE: DALLA COPERTURA ALLA QUALITÀ
Vaccini combinati e combinazioni di strategie

BAROUKH M. ASSAEL

Centro Regionale Veneto di Ricerca, Prevenzione e Cura della Fibrosi Cistica, Verona

COMBINED VACCINES AND COMBINED IMMUNISATION STRATEGIES

Key words: Vaccines, Diphtheria, Rubella, Herd-immunity

Immunisation strategies are various and their effect partially unpredictable. In Japan, the strategy of immunising children to protect the elderly was effective, but the population did not accept it. The implications of immunising against rubella in childhood or during the fertile age are quite different. Early immunisation against measles has the consequence of reducing the herd immunity in adult age. Variability of immunisation campaigns against diphtheria in Russia and Poland produced an immunity gap, with consequent epidemics. The present immunisation strategy against pertussis, which implies an higher infection risk in the adult age, may also have to be revised.

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B.M. Assael VACCINARE: DALLA COPERTURA ALLA QUALITÀ
Vaccini combinati e combinazioni di strategie. Medico e Bambino 2002;21(6):358-368 https://www.medicoebambino.com/?id=0206_357.pdf

Focus

La risposta immunitaria ai vaccini

ROSA BACCHETTA, ERIKA BIRAL, MARIA GRAZIA RONCAROLO

Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (HSR-TIGET), Ospedale San Raffaele, Milano

IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO VACCINES

Key words: Vaccines, Th1-lymphocytes, Th2-lymphocytes, T-regulating lymphocytes

Immunological memory has two components (the central one and the peripheral one, which lasts longer), two branches (cellular and seric) and three functional specialisations of the lymphocytes: Th1, which produce IL-2 and gamma-interferon and control the cellular response; Th2, which produce IL-4 and IL-5 and control the seric response, and T-regulating, which produce IL-5 and control both cellular and seric response. Our knowledge of the effects on the immunological memory and on the immumological balance of both the dosage of immunising antigens and the age of immunisation is still incomplete.

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R. Bacchetta, E. Biral, M.G. Roncarolo La risposta immunitaria ai vaccini. Medico e Bambino 2002;21(6):360-368 https://www.medicoebambino.com/?id=0206_357.pdf

Focus

Pertosse e vaccini combinati

GIORGIO BARTOLOZZI

Direttore Scientifico dell’Azienda Ospedaliera “Meyer”, Firenze

PERTUSSIS AND COMBINED VACCINES

Key words: Combined vaccines, Pertussis, Hib, HBV

Morbility from pertussis has significantly diminished over the last few years as a consequence of immunisation. In 1997 there were no deaths due to pertussis, while in the 10 preceding years pertussis caused 47 deaths, 70% of them in children younger than 12 months. Coverage of pertussis immunisation is now satisfactory in Italy, while that for Hib is still low. 6-valent vaccines including diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Hib antigens may be useful to improve the coverage.

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G. Bartolozzi Pertosse e vaccini combinati. Medico e Bambino 2002;21(6):363-368 https://www.medicoebambino.com/?id=0206_357.pdf

Focus

L’epidemia di morbillo in Campania: che cosa possiamo imparare

MARTA CIOFI DEGLI ATTI E STEFANIA SALMASO1 (per il Gruppo di Coordinamento SPES), RENATO PIZZUTI2, CRESCENZO BOVE3, DOMENICO PROTANO3, ANGELO D’ARGENZIO4, MARIA LUIGIA TRABUCCO4

1Reparto Malattie Infettive, Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Superiore di Sanità
2Agenzia Regionale Servizi Sanitari, Regione Campania
3Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, ASL Caserta 1
4Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, ASL Caserta 2

LESSONS FROM THE MEASLES EPIDEMIC IN CAMPANIA

Key words: Measles, Epidemic, Immunisation coverage

The Authors analyse the current measles epidemic in the Region of Campania, Italy, where the immunisation coverage for measles is 60%. The epidemic shows the typical pattern of intermediate immunisation coverage, with a shift of cases towards older ages. 17.000 cases were reported and there were 368 hospital admissions, 13 cases of encephalitis and 3 deaths. A coverage of at least 95% must be achieved countrywide to prevent the occurrence of new epidemics.

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M. Ciofi degli Atti, E.S. Salmaso, Et Al. L’epidemia di morbillo in Campania: che cosa possiamo imparare. Medico e Bambino 2002;21(6):365-368 https://www.medicoebambino.com/?id=0206_357.pdf


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