Severe hyponatremia has been reported as a possible complication in children with renal dysplasia and urinary tract infection (UTI). The pathogenesis of this conditions is probably due to concomitant events such as renal parenchima flogosis and the immature tubuli function that may lead to a secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism. The paper reports a case of severe hyponatremia in a five-month-old infant with renal dysplasia and vesicoureteral reflux during a UTI episode. Even though Guidelines do not suggest performing lab tests in these children, the advice is monitoring their electrolytes to exclude severe hyponatremia complications such as pontine myelinolisis (also known as osmotic demyelination) that is a neurologic disorder following rapid correction of sodium defect.
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